During the Holocaust, non-Jews faced a choice: to collaborate with or to resist Nazi rule. Many European gentiles living under German occupation adopted an indirect but still morally compromising course, choosing partial accommodation to Nazi policies rather than total collaboration. Others joined resistance movements only after it was clear that the Allies were winning the war. Jews encountered a far narrower set of options, but some took the difficult path to confront Nazi oppression with armed opposition. Two recently-published books reexamine aspects of resistance and collaboration in light of new research.